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中国小微企业融资难现象分析
发布时间:2015-05-30
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  摘要

  目前,中国小微企业数量众多,它们在推动经济发展、促进科技创新、合理配置市场资源、缓解就业压力等方面发挥着无可替代的作用。然而,受内外部因素的影响,中国小微企业一直处于“强位弱势”的状态,其生存和发展面临很多问题,其中最突出的问题就是融资困难,特别是全球金融危机之后,中国小微企业融资难问题比以往更加突出。

  近年来,国家和地方政府出台了一系列小微企业融资扶持政策,这在一定程度上缓解了小微企业的融资困境,但并没有从根本上予以解决,小微企业资金缺口仍然很大。对于我国而言,在经济结构转型升级、就业压力越来越大的情况下,小微企业无疑对我国经济发展和社会进步具有重大战略意义。因此,解决小微企业融资问题已迫在眉睫。

  本文从小微企业融资相关的国内外研究现状、基本概念和理论基础出发,对中国小微企业融资难的现状及原因进行研究,然后提出解决中国小微企业融资难的对策建议。本文综合运用文献研究法、定量分析法、宏观研究与微观研究相结合的方法以及规范分析法,全文共分为六章。第一章是导论,阐述了论文的研究背景、研究目的及意义,对国内外研究现状进行了综述,介绍了论文的研究内容、研究方法及创新之处;第二章对相关基本概念和理论进行概述;第三章从银企供需矛盾突出、融资渠道狭窄、融资结构不合理、融资成本过高、融资担保体系不够健全、融资政策环境不够完善等几个方面,分析中国小微企业融资难的现状;第四章从内外两个方面剖析了小微企业融资难的原因;第五章主要是提出解决中国小微企业融资难的对策建议,从提升小微企业自身实力、改善小微企业外部融资环境、其他对策建议等三个方面进行分析;第六章是总结与展望。

  关键词:小微企业;融资;金融机构

  Abstract

  At present, the number of China's Small and micro businesses is large,They are playingan irreplaceable role in the economic development,promote scientific and technologicalinnovation, the rational allocation of market resources, alleviate the employment pressure etc.However, affected by the internal and external factors, China's small and micro businesses hasbeen in a “Strong position but Vulnerable” state,its survival and development is facing manyproblems, one of the most prominent problem is the financing difficulty, especially after theglobal financial crisis, China's small and micro businesses financing problems become moreprominent than ever.

  In recent years, national and local government are published a series of support policiesto small and micro businesses financing, which eased the financing difficulties small andmicro businesses in a certain extent, but not to be solved, small and micro businessesfinancing gap is still large. In our country, under the upgrade, the employment pressure is moreand more big reform in economic structure, small and micro businesses no doubt hasimportant strategic significance for China's economic development and social progress.Therefore,to solve the financing problem has been imminent for small and micro businesses.

  This article from small and micro businesses financing's related research status at homeand abroad, the basic concepts and theoretical basis, research on China's small and microbusinesses financing difficult situation and the reasons, and then put forward suggestion ofour country small and micro businesses hard financing. This paper used the method ofliterature research, quantitative analysis, macro and micro research method and normativeanalysis, the full text is divided into six chapters. The first chapter is the introduction,describes the background, purpose and significance of research papers, this paper summarizesthe status quo of research at home and abroad, introduces the research contents, researchmethods and innovations; The second chapter carries on the summary to the relevant conceptsand theories; The third chapter analyzes the status quo of China's Small and micro businessesfinancing from the supply and demand contradiction between banks and enterprisesoutstanding, the financing channel is narrow, unreasonable financing structure, financing costs,financing guarantee system is not perfect, the financing policy environment is not perfect andso on several aspects, The fourth chapter analyzes the causes of the financing difficulties ofsmall and micro businesses from internal and external two aspects; The fifth chapter mainlyput forward suggestions to solve our country small and micro businesses hard financing fromimproving small and micro businesses their own strength, improving small and microbusinesses financing external environment three aspects, other suggestions; The sixth chapteris the summary and prospect.

  Keywords: Small and Micro Businesses ; Financing; Financial Institutions.
 

  目录

  摘要

  ABSTRACT

  1.绪论

  1.1研究背景

  1.2研究目的和意义

  1.2.1研究目的

  1.2.2研究意义

  1.3国内外研究动态

  1.3.1国外研究动态

  1.3.2国内研究动态

  1.4研究内容和方法

  1.4.1研究内容

  1.4.2研究方法

  1.5论文的创新之处

  2.相关概念和理论基础概述

  2.1基本概念界定

  2.1.1小微企业

  2.1.2 融资

  2.1.3融资方式

  2.2相关理论概述

  2.2.1信息不对称理论

  2.2.2信贷配给理论

  2.2.3资本结构理论

  2.2.4企业金融成长周期假说

  3.中国小微企业融资难的现状分析

  3.1银企供需矛盾突出

  3.1.1融资缺口巨大

  3.1.2企业获贷难和银行放贷难并存

  3.2融资渠道狭窄

  3.2.1小微企业融资渠道狭窄

  3.2.2现有融资渠道存在问题

  3.3融资结构不合理

  3.3.1过分依赖内源性融资

  3.3.2外源融资构成不合理

  3.4融资成本过高

  3.4.1银行贷款成本高

  3.4.2民间借贷利率高

  3.5融资担保体系不够健全

  3.6融资政策环境不够完善

  4.中国小微企业融资难的原因分析

  4.1小微企业融资难的内因分析

  4.1.1财务制度不够规范,内外融资能力偏弱

  4.1.2经营管理理念落后,风险抵御能力不强

  4.1.3小微企业资本匮乏,抵押担保资产偏少

  4.1.4信息不对称较严重,银行信贷风险较大

  4.2小微企业融资难的外因分析

  4.2.1金融机构体系存在缺陷

  4.2.2资本市场发展不够健全

  4.2.3信用担保体系不够完善

  4.2.4政府政策支持力度不足

  5.解决中国小微企业融资难的对策建议

  5.1提升小微企业自身实力

  5.1.1完善企业财务管理制度

  5.1.2提升企业理财能力

  5.1.3提高企业经营管理水平

  5.1.4树立良好的企业诚信形象

  5.2改善小微企业外部融资环境

  5.2.1完善相关金融机构

  5.2.2健全中国资本市场

  5.2.3完善信用担保体系

  5.2.4加大政府的政策支持力度

  5.3其他对策建议

  5.3.2尝试小微企业商圈融资模式

  5.3.2发展个人委托借款

  6.总结与展望

  6.1研究结论

  6.2不足与展望

  参考文献

  致谢

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